Arrowroot Flour: is made from the fleshy root-stock of the tropical arrowroot plant. Its white, fine, and powdery texture is very similar to cornstarch but it has no flavor at all. It is typically used as a thickener for puddings, sauces and other cooked foods.
Rye: Rye flour is flour milled from whole rye berries and grains of rye grass. Related to wheat flour, it has a slightly sour taste and is used to prepare rye bread and sourdough bread.
Wholemeal: This is made from the whole wheat grain with nothing added or taken away.
Whole-wheat Flour: The bran, endosperm, and germ are separated and milled. These parts are combined back to form the type of needed flour such as whole-wheat, whole-grain, All-purpose etcetera. To make the whole-wheat flour, part of bran and most of the germ may not be added back to reduce rancidity for increased shelf life. Other flours such as Rye may be added for strength.
Durum Integrale Flour: Whole durum flour (Triticum durum) is the finely ground whole grain of durum wheat, a hard spring wheat with a high-gluten content and golden color. It is used to make bread, pizza and pasta products such as spaghetti,vermicelli, macaroni and lasagna noodles.
Semolina Flour: is the coarse, purified wheat middlings of durum wheat used in making pasta,breakfast cereals, and couscous.
Almond Flour: is made from ground sweet almonds.Almond flour is good in “quick-bread” type recipes, like muffins, nut breads, and pancakes . It’s not good for foods such as bread that require a real dough (you can’t knead it). Usually, more eggs are required when baking with almond meal to provide more structure.
Coconut Flour: it’s not only a gluten-free flour, it’s a grain free flour too. So for those who follow strict grain free diets, coconut flour opens up a world of delicious baked goods. It’s a high fiber, fairly high protein flour.
Cake Flour : is special cake flour that is able to hold large amounts of liquid. This gives the cake produced a very soft crumb and a light, moist, fine texture. They are also sweeter, have greater volume and a longer shelf life than cakes made with standard flour.
Strong Bread (high-grade): is made from semi-hard wheat and has a medium to high protein content. It is used for making bread.
Tipo 0: Premium high protein flour obtained from Manitoba wheat. Manitoba flour forms a very high quantity of gluten, which makes it the perfect choice for speciality and continental bread production. It’s strong and elastic mixed with yeast and it’s ideal for long rising phase pastries like croissants, brioche, doughnuts, flaky pastry, Panattone and sourdough bread.
Tipo 00: Extra fine ground soft wheat flour, this unbleached flour is a great all-purpose flour, perfect for all baking. From cake, pie, and cookies to yeast bread and pizza. It’s slightly lower protein level makes it perfect for baguette, ciabatta, sourdough and other artisan hearth breads as well.
Polenta :Good for gluten-free baking.A ground cornmeal based product now days although it used to make from farro grains or chestnuts.
Matzo:Not strictly a flour but it is used at passover and other times as a flour substitute and as a binding agent.
High ratio flour:very fine, uniform particle size, treated with chlorine to reduce the gluten strength.
Standard (soft) Flour: also called soft flour, is made from soft wheat varieties and has a low protein content. It is used for making cakes and biscuits as it gives the baked product a tender texture. Cake flour for traditional cakes should be very fine, white and clean. This enables it to hold more liquid.
Pastry Flour: is a high protein content and should be very white and free of any bran particles to ensure a good pastry product.
Self raising Flour : is made by combining flour with baking powder or a similar chemical aerating agent. These are sifted together many times until combined and the baking powder is evenly distributed through the flour. This kind of flour is perfect for making pikelets and scones.
All Purpose Flour : All-purpose flour is a mix of hard and soft flours. It is a type of flour that lets you make a wide variety of baked goods, ie: cookies, cakes, muffins, quick breads, biscuits, and pie crusts.
Kamut:an ancient grain.
Rice Flour: made from milled or brown rice, this flour doesn’t contain gluten and is used a lot in South East Asian cuisine.
Buckwheat Flour: nutty, grey in colour and spotted with black bits, this makes an excellent wheat substitute for those with gluten allergies. It’s often mixed with other flours because it has a bitter taste.
Chestnut Flour: greyish in colour and sweet-tasting, this flour is mixed with wheat flour and doesn’t contain gluten.
With thanks and reference to the following for their knowledge and information: